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Mini Histories

Modern day images from around the City of Liverpool along with a potted history...

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By the 1890s the George's Dock, built in 1771, was essentially redundant. It was the third dock built in Liverpool, and was too small and too shallow in depth for the commercial ships of the late 19th century. Most of the site was owned by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, set up by Parliament in 1857; a small part of the site still was still held by the Corporation of the City of Liverpool. The Board and the Corporation had differing priorities, and the former were not inclined to forgo any commercial advantage for the benefit of the latter. In January 1896, the two bodies began discussions, with the Corporation's team headed by Lord Derby (who was then the Lord Mayor), and the Board's representatives led by Robert Gladstone, a member of the Liverpool family of which W.E. Gladstone was the best-known. The Corporation sought to persuade the Board to accept its offer to buy the site, reserving a portion of it for new Board offices. After two years of negotiation this was agreed, and Parliamentary authority was obtained for the deal. The Corporation paid £277,399 for the site, from which the Board reserved about 13,500 square yards for its own building.
When it acquired the site, the Corporation had been confident of finding tenants for the two remaining plots suitable for large-scale buildings, but no such prospective tenants came forward, and it was decided to offer the freehold of the sites for sale. However, at an auction of the sites in 1905 there were no bidders.The following year, the Royal Liver Friendly Society made an approach through Walter Aubrey Thomas, a local architect, successfully offering considerably less for a site than the Corporation had hoped for: £70,000 instead of £95,000. Gladstone and the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board expressed consternation at the height of the Royal Liver Society's proposed new headquarters, sometimes described as "England's first skyscraper", but after much debate the Corporation approved the plans.
The last of the three Pier Head sites between the Liver Building and the Docks and Harbour Board offices was for some time intended to be developed on behalf of the Corporation, partly to replace a nearby public baths and partly as offices for the city's new tram network. This scheme fell through, and in the early years of the 20th century a combined public baths and customs house was proposed. After several years that scheme, too, came to nothing, and in 1913 the Cunard shipping line announced its intention to build a new headquarters in Liverpool. The Cunard Building was built of reinforced concrete, clad in Portland Stone, in a style intended to recall grand Italian palaces, described by the architectural historian Peter De Figueiredo as "a match for its more ostentatious neighbours in expressive power but greatly superior in refinement of detail and proportion."

In 2007 work began on a new scheme, to re-house the Museum of Liverpool Life. Work also started in 2007 to build a canal link between the Leeds-Liverpool Canal and the South Docks. The £22 million pound 1.6 mile extension to the Leeds-Liverpool Canal was officially opened on 25 March 2009. It opens to boaters at the end of April and links the 127 miles of the existing canal to the city's South Docks, passing the Pier Head and the Three Graces.

Liverpool Waterfront was crowned the overall winner in England’s Great Places on 16 December 2015. In a nationwide competition organised by the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) to show off the diverse places that planners and the planning system have created protected and enhanced for communities, Liverpool Waterfront came out top.

Over 11,000 people voted on a shortlist of 10 places, with Liverpool Waterfront emerging as the most popular place.

Probably the most photographed and well known building in Liverpool. It is located at Pier Head and stands proud and majestic against the skyline of Liverpool and the riverfront. The building is made of reinforced concrete and was the first large scale building of its type. It was built in 1911 for the Royal Liver Friendly Society. This impressive architectural masterpiece features a pair of clock towers from which shipping could tell the time as they passed en route along the river. The clock faces are actually larger than the clock face of Big Ben in London. In fact, they are the largest clock dials in Britain. In 1953 electronic chimes were installed to serve as a memorial to the members of the Royal Liver Friendly Society who died during the two World Wars. At night time the clock dials are illuminated. They were originally named George clocks, because they were started at the precise time that King George V was crowned on 22 June 1911.

A statue of a Liver Bird spreading its wings from the top of each clock tower enhances the glory of the building and its impressive features. The Liver Bird, the official mascot of Liverpool is a cormorant (seaweed bird) which in bygone times could often be seen flying alongside the Mersey River with seaweed in their beaks. The birds are 18 ft high, their heads are 31/2 ft long, the spread of the wings is 12 ft, their length is 10 ft and the legs are 2ft in circumference. Their bodies and wings are of moulded and hammered copper fixed on a steel armature. Although there are Liver Birds on many buildings in Liverpool, it is the two which roost on top of this building that are the biggest in the city and which to many people are the very identity of Liverpool.   

The history of the Cunard Building dates back to 1914, when the Cunard Steamship Company commissioned the construction of new headquarters for the company. Cunard's expansion had meant that they had outgrown their previous offices, which were also located in Liverpool, and the site chosen for construction was at the former George's Dock, in between the Liver Building and Port of Liverpool Building. The building was designed by architects William Edward Willink and Philip Coldwell Thicknesse and was inspired by the grand palaces of Renaissance Italy. It was constructed by Holland, Hannen and Cubitts between 1914 and 1917, with Arthur J. Davis, of Mewes and Davis, acting as consultant on the project. 

The history of the Port of Liverpool Building dates back to 1898, when the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board (MDHB) decided to close down and infill George's Dock. The land was sold to the Liverpool Corporation in 1900, although the MDHB opted to keep the southern section, so that they could build a new central headquarters for the company, having been previously located at various sites around the city, including the Old Custom's House. It was completed in 1907 at a cost of approximately £250,000, although when the cost of furniture, fittings and professional fees was taken into account, the total cost was nearer £350,000. Staff from the MDHB headquarters officially moved into the building on 15 July 1907,  with staff from departments located in other areas of the city moving in throughout the rest of the year. The building acted as the head offices of the MDHB (renamed the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company in 1972) for some 87 years.

Beatles Statue at Liverpoool's Pier Head 

A new statue of The Beatles has been unveiled in Liverpool - 50 years after their last show in Merseyside.
The bronze sculpture, which weighs 1.2 tonnes, was donated to the city by the Cavern Club. The bronze was sculpted by Andrew Edwards and depicts the band walking toward the river Mersey and reflects a real photo shoot. John Lennon’s sister Julia Baird and Liverpool deputy mayor Cllr Ann O’Byrne officially unveiled it at it new home at the Pier Head.
Julia Bird said, “ I am honoured to be unveiling this statue in our wonderful city of Liverpool. It stands in loving memory of the best band in the world; the band that leapt from the Cavern stage to world-wide recognition. The timing reflects the 50 years since The Beatles final public appearance in Liverpool, at The Empire on the 5 December 1965. I was present at that event and am proud to be at the unveiling.”

The idea for the statue came from Chris Butler, managing director of Castle Fine Art Foundry Ltd, which has a studio in the city.

"This is a statue that needs no title, no explanation, no instruments, no gimmicks," he said of the piece inspired by the 1963 photo shoot. "It's a monument to a moment and the moment started in Liverpool."

The Memorial to the Engine Room Heroes of the Titanic is a granite monument located on St. Nicholas Place, at the Pier Head, in Liverpool, England. The city of Liverpool is strongly associated with the ill-fated liner that sank on 15 April 1912 with the loss of some 1,517 lives. The RMS Titanic was owned by White Star Line which was founded in Liverpool in 1840. Liverpool was also the port of registry of the liner with the words 'Titanic, Liverpool' visible on the stern of the ship. The memorial on Liverpool's waterfront is dedicated to the 244 engineers who lost their lives in the disaster as they remained in the ship supplying the stricken liner with electricity and other amenities for as long as possible. The monument is notable as the first monument in the United Kingdom to depict the working man.
The monument dedicated to the hundreds of men who died during the sinking was designed by Sir William Goscombe John and constructed circa 1916. It stands 48 feet (14.6 m) tall and although it is most strongly associated with the RMS Titanic, its dedication was broadened to include all maritime engine room fatalities incurred during the performance of duty in World War I. The monument is Grade II* listed. Shrapnel damage from bombs that fell during the Second World War can be clearly seen on the monument.

Heaven and Earth, Liverpool, Pier Head.

A  memorial to Jeremiah Horrocks born in Toxteth, Liverpool in 1619. 

Jeremiah Horrocks attended Emmanuel College, Cambridge where he became familiar with the works of Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe in the subject of astronomy. 

He also studied Venus and was convinced that tables of data describing its orbit were inaccurate. He predicted that it would pass in front of the Sun in 1639. He was the first person to accurately calculate the transit of Venus, using a telescope he projected an image of the Sun onto a card, and was able to see an image of the planet passing in front of the Sun. 

A monument to Horrocks by Andy Plant was installed in 2011 at the Pier Head. The base is inscribed with the words:

Thy return posterity shall witness, years must roll away, but then at length the splendid sight again shall greet our distant children’s eyes

It is in the form of a telescope pointing to the Sun and Venus. 

Horrocks died suddenly at the young age of 22 and it is believed he would have been able to contribute greatly to the field of astronomy if he hadn’t died so young. 

Horrocks Avenue  is named after him and there is a plaque dedicated to his memory, which hangs on the chapel wall in the Ancient Chapel of Toxteth, each of its four corners decorated with a five pointed star.  St Michaels In The Hamlet also features a memorial to Jeremiah Horrocks and at Westminster Abbey, London. there is a memorial tablet to Horrocks, (erected c.1874 after a petition by the Royal Astronomical Society.

The Liver Birds

The liver birds top the clock towers on the Royal Liver Building, at Liverpool's Pier Head. In the early years of the twentieth century, while living and working in Harringay, London, Carl Bernard Bartels entered and won a competition to design the Liver birds which stand on the building designed by Walter Aubrey Thomas. Later, during the First World War, Bartels was imprisoned in an internment camp on the Isle of Man, even though he had been a naturalised Briton for more than 20 years. After the war Bartels was forcibly repatriated to Germany, leaving behind his wife in England. Bartels returned to the United Kingdom and lived and worked in Harringay until his death in 1955, producing carvings for Durham Cathedral, various stately homes and even making artificial limbs during the Second World War. His great grandson Tim Olden received the Citizen of Honour Award on behalf of Carl Bernard Bartels at a ceremony to mark the the building's 100th anniversary, more than 50 years after the German sculptor died.

The bird's species has long been the subject of confusion and controversy, The College of Arms refers to the bird as a cormorant, adding that the sprig in the mouth is of laver, a type of seaweed. The modern popularity of the symbol largely dates to 1911, when the Liver Building was built. This prominent display of two liver birds rekindled the idea that the liver was a mythical bird that once haunted the local shoreline. According to popular legend, they are a male and female pair, the female looking out to sea, (watching for the seamen to return safely home) whilst the male looks towards the city (making sure the City is safe). An alternative version says the female liver bird is looking out to sea for the return of sailors whilst the male liver bird is looking inland to see if the pubs are open.

Albion House

Designed by architects Richard Norman Shaw and J. Francis Doyle, it was built for the Ismay, Imrie and Company shipping company, which later became the White Star Line. After White Star merged with Royal Mail Line the headquarters remained at Albion House until 1934 at which time the British Government forced the merger of Cunard Line and White Star Line. The building is situated on the corner of The Strand and James Street. In 1912, when news of the disaster of the Titanic reached the offices, the officials were too afraid to leave the building, and instead read the names of the deceased from the balcony. After years of dereliction, the the building has been restored to its former glory, returning to Norman Shaw’s original wide open design of the White Star Great Hall, which now seats 210 people. The building now operates as a 64 bedroom luxury Titanic-themed hotel known as 30 James Street. 

Alabama House, 10 Rumford Place, unofficial Confederate embassy.

During the American civil war, Liverpool was the unofficial home of the Confederate fleet. Three significant acts of the war involved Liverpool.

The first act of the war - the first shot of the civil war was fired by a cannon made in Lydia Anne Street.

The very last act of the war - Captain Waddell of the CCS Shenandoah walking up the steps of Liverpool Town Hall surrendering his vessel to the Lord Mayor, after sailing 'home' from Alaska to surrender.

The last official lowering of the Confederate flag - Was on CSS Shenandoah on the River Mersey at Liverpool overseen by the Royal Navy.

 At the outbreak of war the Northern Union fleet blockaded Confederate ports to prevent trade and supply of munitions of war. The Confederacy had no navy and proceeded to build one from Liverpool. The British government was officially neutral in the dispute not recognising the Confederacy. Cotton importers Frazer Trenholm at 10 Rumford Place, now known as Alabama House, acted as the unofficial Confederate embassy where operations were conducted.  The Northern Union consulate was a few minutes walk away in Tower Buildings, Water Street. Commander Bulloch of the Confederate Navy was based in Liverpool, his prime task was to assemble and run a navy. He never returned to America after the conflict remaining in Liverpool for the rest of his life, and now lays in Toxteth Cemetery.

Charles Kuhn Prioleau’s  lived in a house Abercromby Square, he was senior partner of Fraser, Trenholm and Coin Rumford Street, (the building in the photograph), and the leading Confederate financier in Britain during the war. He provided the funding necessary to build ships such as the Alabama, Florida, and Shenandoah, and numerous blockade runners.

Memorial to the King's Liverpool Regiment 
by Sir William Goscombe John. 1905.

The memorial features Bronze figures on grey Scottish granite and is situated in St John's Gardens, Liverpool. The King's Regiment (Liverpool) was one of the oldest line infantry regiments of the British Army, having been formed in 1685 and numbered as the 8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot in 1751.

The memorial is one of the notable public monuments by this fine Welsh sculptor of the late Victorian/early twentieth-century period. At the top of it stands the figure of Britannia, mourning men of this old, long-established infantry regiment who lost their lives fighting in Afghanistan (1878-80), Burma (1885-87) and South Africa (1899-1902). She is flanked on the left by a soldier of 1685 (the year in which the regiment was formed) and on the right by a soldier in contemporary uniform. At the foot of Britannia lies an arrangement of guns, wreaths and palms, with a Union Jack flag draped over it, while a drummer boy is depicted at the rear, with a musket, banners and canon behind him, the regimental badge just above him, and names of engagements such as Ladysmith inscribed on the granite to either side of him. The whole memorial was "unveiled to critical acclaim" and is considered "a rare example of a pre-First World War, large-scale regimental monument in a public setting" (Cavanagh 180). The regiment was amalgamated with the Manchester Regiment in 1958, and is now part of the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment.

The Central library is located in several adjoining historic buildings on the city's historic William Brown Street. The library's first building was the William Brown Library and Museum building which was completed in 1860 to the designs of John Grey Weightman[1] and which it has always shared with the city's museum, now known as World Museum Liverpool. The library was then extended further to the right with the addition in 1879 of the Picton Reading Room and to the rear with the Hornby Library in 1906. All three of these buildings are Grade II* listed buildings and are built in a classical style similar to other buildings on the street.

The new Central library in William Brown Street re-opened on Friday 17th May 2013 and I took a trip down there to take some photographs to record this historic event and also to hand over copies of my new book 'Liverpool in the 1950s'. The refurbishment was the result of a decade of planning and it took four months to re-stock four million books, prints and paintings, the library originally opened in 1860. Rare treasures include the original 1207 Charter signed by King John, which granted Liverpool city status. There is also an "extremely valuable" copy of The Birds of America, by naturalist and painter John James Audubon, as well as paintings by the 19th Century artist Edward Lear.

Lime Street in Liverpool was created as a street in 1790. Its most famous feature is Lime Street Station. It is part of the William Brown Street conservation area. The street was named for lime kilns owned by William Harvey, a local businessman. When the street was laid out in 1790 it was outside the city limits, but by 1804 the lime kilns were causing problems at a nearby infirmary. The doctors complained about the smell, and so the kilns were moved away, but the street name remained unchanged. With the arrival of the railway line in 1851, the street moved from a marginal to a central location in the city, a position that confirmed by the creation of St George's Hall, on the side of the street opposite the station, in 1854. Wellington's Column, a monument to the Duke of Wellington was built to mark one end of the street, at the corner with William Brown Street.
The modern street is part of the A5038 road. The Lime Street name ends at the crossroads marked by the Britannia Adelphi Hotel

Queen Square dates from the second half of the 18th century. and is named after King George III’s Queen, Charlotte. On the south side of the square, in Roe Street, (named after William Roe), was Queens Square market that traded here for many years but after the Second World War, the area became increasingly neglected and rundown. The fruit market that was there at the time moved to the outskirts of the city. On the north side of Queen Square was an elegant Georgian house built by William Roe in Hood Street (later Tryon Street). In about 1810 the house was converted into a hotel the Stork. Its site is now occupied by a multi story car park.

By the 1970’s most of the square had been redeveloped, it is now the main bust terminus for the city as well as having the Marriott Hotel restaurants and its own selection of bars and shops in nearby Williamson Square.

Built in 1716-17 as a charity school, Bluecoat Chambers in School Lane is the oldest surviving building in central Liverpool, England. Following the Liverpool Blue Coat School's move to another site in 1906, the building was rented from 1907 onwards by the Sandon Studios Society. Based on the presence of this art society and the subsequent formation of the Bluecoat Society of Arts in 1927, the successor organisation laid claim to being the oldest arts centre in Great Britain, now called The Bluecoat.

The site of St Luke's was granted to the town by Lord Derby in 1791 it was a condition of his gift that the land should never be devoted to any other purpose than the site of a Church. The foundation stone was laid on the 9th of April 1811 by James Drinkwater Esq, the Chief Magistrate of Liverpool. The design of the church had been drawn up by John Foster Snr and the church was built by his son, John Foster Junior, the Corporation architect and surveyor. In addition to being a parish church, it was also intended to be used as a venue for ceremonial worship by the Corporation, and as a concert hall. St Luke's was badly damaged during the Liverpool Blitz in 1941, the church was hit by an incendiary device just after midnight on Tuesday May 6th 1941 and the resulting fire was described by the Liverpool Echo as "magnificent".

Photographs of the clock after the fire show the hands at 03.36 meaning that this would have been when the fire reached the upper stories of the tower.  Although the bell frame remained intact, 3 of the bells were badly cracked and broken whilst the further 5 bells fell to the floor of the tower.

The building was earmarked for demolition in the 1950s and 1960s, but came to be regarded as a war memorial to the civilian casualties from the Second World War in Liverpool and from 2007 till 2014, Urban Strawberry Lunch organised the day-to-day maintenance of St Lukes. A calendar of regular exhibitions and events took place inside the grounds. In addition to this, they arranged showings of films, and many dance, poetry, and drama performances. 

Known locally as ‘The Bombed Out Church,’ the iconic structure is now undergoing building work to repair damaged stoneworks, to fix the tops of the exposed walls, and to remove vegetation from the brickwork. It is expected that the final phase of work could be completed in November 2016 and the church reopened to the public in December.

65-67 Bold Street, Liverpool

Built in 1828, the building was originally a chapel, the Art Deco frontage was added in 1935 to create the premises of William Watson, Motor Car Dealer.

Bold street was named as 'The Bond Street of the North' and the 1828 chapel became a place of entertainment called Queen's Hall. Following that particular incarnation it became, The Panorama Hall, Queen's Operetta House and the Bijou Opera House and the 1890's it became the Yamen Cafe. In the 1920s it became a Tea Room and to this day with high ceilings and lots of beautiful original features it remains a jewel in the Bold Street crown.

The building is one of the finest examples of Art Deco Architecture in the UK and its current owners LEAF present a variety of events working closely with the local community to deliver a distinctive events programme throughout the year with an acoustic stage downstairs and an upstairs that transforms between being a live gig venue and very flexible event space. They also serve up a menu of locally-sourced and freshly-made wholesome food and countless varieties of loose-leaf tea.

The Church of Saint Andrew is a former Presbyterian church building in Rodney Street. The body of the church was designed by Daniel Stewart, the surveyor of the Scottish Presbyterian Church committee of management, and the façade by John Foster the senior surveyor of the Corporation of Liverpool. The foundation stone was laid on 17 June 1823, and the church opened the following year on 3 December and remained open until 1975. The congregation then began meeting in the Radcliffe Room at Liverpool Cathedral. The building was seriously damaged by fire in 1983. Since that time, one of the towers has had to be demolished because it was unsafe. The church and its surrounding graveyard were purchased privately in 1988 and later Liverpool City Council acquired the site. 
In December 2011 it was announced that the church would be restored and developed into accommodation for 100 students, with redevelopment work to include the rebuilding of one of the church's turrets and a remodelling of the exterior. The building has now been completely restored and successfully preserved, with the former building now rebuilt to provide student accommodation known as "St Andrew's Place".

Everton Lock-Up, sometimes referenced by one of its nicknames such as Prince Rupert's Tower or Prince Rupert's Castle is a lock-up located on Everton Brow in Everton, Liverpool. The 18th-century structure is one of two Georgian lock-ups that still survive in Liverpool; the other is in Wavertree. It is famous for being the centre-piece of the crest of Everton F.C. The Grade II-listed building, which was opened in 1787, was originally an overnight holding place where local drunks and criminals were taken by parish constables. Prisoners would then be brought before local Justices of the Peace for trial. Punishments would usually be similar to community service such as clearing ditches, unblocking drains or removing rubbish.
The Friends of Everton Park settled on a plan to permanently light up the Lock-Up, with Everton FC agreeing to pay £5,000 towards the £11,000 cost of the project.  The Lock Up has been permanently illuminated following since February 2014.

Liverpool Anglican Cathedral

In late 1901, two well-known architects were appointed as assessors for an open competition for architects wishing to be considered for the design of the Anglican Cathedral. 

Architects were invited by public advertisement to submit portfolios of their work for consideration. In 1903, the assessors recommended a proposal submitted by the 22-year-old Giles Gilbert Scott, who was still an articled pupil working in Temple Moore's practice, and had no existing buildings to his credit. He told the assessors that so far his only major work had been to design a pipe-rack. The choice of winner was even more contentious with the Cathedral Committee when it was discovered that Scott was a Roman Catholic, but the decision stood.

The Liverpool Cathedral Lady Chapel

The first part of the Cathedral consecrated for worship was the Lady Chapel, in the south eastern corner of the main building. The Chapel's style is more elaborate than the main body of the Cathedral, reflecting different approaches by the architect, Giles Gilbert Scott and his team. The Chapel has its own organ (built by Henry Willis and Sons) and is regularly used for worship, weddings. The portrait windows of noble women on the west wall of the Chapel are famous. Restored after the Second World War, they show women from different areas of life, including local heroes like Kitty Wilkinson, helper of the poor and Agnes Jones, a devoted nurse as well as nationally known figures such as Grace Darling, Elizabeth Fry and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.

Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, West window

Following the death of Sir Giles Gilbert Scott in 1960 it was decided to change the design of the west end of the cathedral, which had consisted of a small rose window and an elaborate porch. Frederick Thomas and Roger Pinkney, who had both worked with Scott, produced a simplified design that gave the opportunity for a large west window. Created by Carl Edwards and based on the theme of the Benedicite, the window consists of a round-headed window at the top, and three tall lancet windows below. It covers an area of 1,600 square foot (150 m2), each lancet window being more than 52 feet (15.8 m) high. Revd Noel Vincent, the former canon treasurer of the cathedral, states that the top part of the window represents "the risen Christ in glory looking down ... in compassion on the world", and the images beneath depict "all creation united in peace". Below the west window is an 'art work' by Tracey Emin. Installed in 2008 it proclaims, 'I felt You and I knew You loved me', regarded as salacious by some considering her past works.

Museum Of The Moon

In May 2018 the Cathedral Hosted an exhibition of an artwork by Luke Jerram entitled Museum Of The Moon.

Luke Jerram’s Museum Of The Moon fuses lunar imagery moonlight and and a surround soundscape By BAFTA an Ivor Novello Award Winning composer Dan Jones.

The moon’s surface is created from detailed NASA imagery and is re-produced on a 1:500,000 scale, which is lit up from within.

Museum of the Moon is a touring artwork that was presented at a number of arts and cultural festivals. The artwork was presented at the Commonwealth Games in Australia,  toured five cities of India with the British Council and was presented in Aarhus, Denmark for the European Capital of Culture.

Florence Institute, Mill Street, Dingle, 19th January 2016
Probably designed by H W Keef, it was built in 1889 by Sir Bernard Hall, a West Indies merchant, Alderman and former Mayor of Liverpool. His daughter Florence died while in Paris at the age of 22 and he built this boys' club as a memorial and tribute to her at his sole expense. The building is a fine example of late Victorian architecture. For a hundred years the 'Florrie' served the working and unemployed youth of the tough dock-side area. Towards the end of the 1980s, at the depths of the economic slump for Liverpool the funding dried up for the Institute and in 1987 it was sold. The building fell into disrepair and suffered from vandalism and the natural elements. This was compounded when in 1999 there was a major fire which destroyed the roof. As time went on the local community formed a pressure group, 'The Friends of the Florrie' to work with all the agencies and stakeholders to restore the splendour of the Florrie and provide a multi-ethnic community centre for all ages and abilities.
The Florrie' – celebrated its official re-opening on 18 July 2012. Closed for over 20 years, the 19th-century building in Toxteth is the oldest surviving purpose-built youth club in the UK.

St Barnabas Church in south Liverpool is on the corner of Penny Lane, the street made famous by the Beatles tune. However the title of the song is not the only link that the church has with the fab four - as a boy, Paul McCartney sang in the church choir.

St Barnabas' was built between 1900 and 1914, and designed by the Liverpool architect James Francis Doyle. Before 1914 the congregation met in a temporary iron church. The architect died before the building was completed and the church was finished under the supervision of his brother Sydney W. Doyle. The church building cost £14,000 and, with the internal fittings, its total cost was about £25,000 (£2,140,000 in 2016). In the 1960s pews were removed from the east end of the nave, and a nave altar and communion rails were installed. The church is built in specially moulded bricks of various sizes, with red sandstone dressings

The Church of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas is the Anglican parish church of Liverpool. The site is said to have been a place of worship since at least 1257. The church is situated close to the River Mersey near the Pier Head. The Chapel of St Nicholas (Patron Saint of Sailors) was built on the site of St Mary del Quay, which in 1355 was determined to be too small for the growing borough of Liverpool. It is a Grade II listed building and an active parish church in the diocese of Liverpool, the archdeaconry of Liverpool and the deanery of Liverpool North. The church was once the tallest building in Liverpool at 53 meters from 1813-1868.

All Saints' Church, is in Childwall, Liverpool.It is a designated Grade I listed building, and is the only medieval church remaining in Liverpool. The chancel dates from the 14th century, and the south aisle and porch are probably from the 15th century. Additions were made in the 18th century and the tower and spire date from 1810–11. The north aisle dates from 1833 and it was partly rebuilt between 1900 and 1905. The church is built in red sandstone. The tower has a large two-light window, a clock on three faces and two-light bell-openings. The spire is recessed behind an openwork parapet with gargoyles. The churchyard contains the graves of John Charles Ryle, the first Anglican Bishop of Liverpool, and his wife, and the grave of the poet William Watson. Also in the churchyard is a sandstone hearse house dated 1811 which is a Grade II listed building.

All Hallows' Allerton on 22nd January 2016

The building of the church was financed by John Bibby of Harthill, a wealthy iron and copper merchant, in memory of his first wife. She was born on All Hallows' Eve 1812 and, appropriately, the foundation stone was laid on 31st October 1872. The architect opted for the use of local red sandstone for the exterior and white Storeton stone for the interior. The stained glass is largely the work of Sir Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. The windows were not installed at one time, but over many years, Bibby’s contribution being supplemented with donations from family and friends. 
So lavish was Bibby’s outlay that there was no money remaining for bells or, more importantly, an endowment. By 1876 the church was largely complete and was consecrated by the Lord Bishop of Chester on 10th August. The first vicar was the Revd Nicholas Kemble, whose ministry lasted for nearly 30 years.

In 2011, extensive restoration was carried out on the tower at a cost of just over £203,000, this sum bring raised by a generous response from the congregation and those organisations who gave grants in support of this work...

St Peter's Church, in Church Road, Woolton, Liverpool.

In 1826 a new chapel was built on a site a little below the present building. Holding around 200 people the church was built of the locally quarried sandstone. As the population of Woolton grew the chapel was felt to be too small and in 1885 a number of wealthy merchants agreed to support the building of the new church. The foundation stone was laid in 1886 and it opened for worship the following year. The new church was built from local sandstone, the 90-ft high bell tower contains 8 bells and is the highest point in Liverpool with commanding views of Lancashire, Cheshire and the Welsh hills. The church has a fine set of stained glass windows all except two of which are designed by the famous artist Charles Kempe. The two smaller windows were removed from the original church and are designed by William Morris. Kempe’s work can be seen also in the small side chapel, which is regularly used for smaller services. The original church organ was built by Foster and Andrews of Hull in 1895 not long after the completion of the church. It was rebuilt in 1945 by the Liverpool company Rushworth and Dreaper. The organ was refurbished and brought up to date with a computerised coupling in 1994 by another Liverpool company David Wells.

Almost certainly the most important meeting in popular music history” is how the first meeting of John Lennon and Paul McCartney has recently been described. The meeting took place at St Peter’s Church Hall on the evening of Saturday, 6th July 1957… Whilst waiting to play at the church dance that night, John Lennon and the other members of the Quarrymen Skiffle Group were introduced to the young Paul McCartney by a mutual friend. Equally as well known is the grave of Eleanor Rigby, featured in the 1966 Beatles’ song, and found in the churchyard. Also in the churchyard, and often overlooked by the numerous visiting Beatles fans, is the grave of John’s uncle, George Toogood Smith.

Exchange Station

Exchange was once one of the North West’s biggest rail terminal with local lines to Southport, Preston and Wigan, there were also direct trains heading as far afield as Yorkshire and Scotland. The first station in Tithebarn Street opened 166 years ago in May 1850, replacing a smaller one in Great Howard Street. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway called it Liverpool Tithebarn Street, but the East Lancashire Railway dubbed it Liverpool Exchange. The station was fronted by the Exchange Hotel, in Tithebarn Street. passengers passed through giant arches at the front into the station itself, with its ten platforms. The station was badly damaged in the Blitz of 1941, but services were back to normal by 1942. By the early 1960s the station was as busy as ever, but the Beeching cuts bit hard. By 1968, its service to Glasgow Central was the UK’s last remaining steam-hauled passenger service. And when that was withdrawn in 1970, the station only served Southport, Ormskirk and Bolton. Its fate was sealed when, in 1971, Parliament confirmed plans to build underground lines linking Liverpool’s city centre stations.

Within a few years of closure the old station was demolished by Oldham Bros, a local demolition company. However, the frontage of the station building was preserved and incorporated into a new office building built behind, named Mercury Court. The station site is still largely intact used as surface car parking. The approaches to the station still exist on the old brick viaducts. The lines descend and disappear just before Leeds Street and down under the old station into the Link Tunnel of the Merseyrail Northern Line. Parts of the original station wall can still be seen when walking down Pall Mall or Bixteth Street. Refurbished in 2014 it is now called by its original name Exchange Station.

Oriel Chambers

Oriel Chambers
14-16 Water Street.

Oriel Chambers was the first building in the world to make extensive use of glazed curtain wall construction. It was designed as an office building by local architect and engineer Peter Ellis (1805-84) for the Reverend Thomas Anderson. Anderson is commemorated on the exterior by the letters T.A. and the clan emblem of an oak tree above the motto "Stand Sure". The four-storey building has a concealed cast iron frame and glazed façades, seven of its bays front Water Street and originally 20 bays faced Covent Garden. The projecting (oriel) windows take advantage of natural light from all directions and the windows are tall with delicate cast iron framing and masonry panels. The oriels on Covent Garden are wider than those on Water Street.
During the blitz in May 1941 bombing destroyed the northern section, exposing the frame and innovative curtain wall construction. The damage was repaired in 1959-61, by James & Bywaters, who also designed an extension. Only 12 of the Covent Garden façade bays are now original. In July 1966, Oriel Chambers was designated a Grade I listed building.
Nikolaus Pevsner (1902-83) praised the building, saying it was "ahead of its time” (1936) and in 1969 calling it "one of the most remarkable buildings of its date in Europe”.

Martins Bank Building, Water Street

Martins Bank Building
4 Water St
The Martins Bank Building was designed by noted architect Herbert James Rowse and completed in 1932, the Martins Bank building is considered to be among the finest neo-classical buildings built in England. Rowse is best known for his work in Liverpool, including India Buildings, the entrances to and ventilation towers of the Mersey Tunnel ("Queensway"), and the Philharmonic Hall. He designed in a range of styles, from neoclassical to Art Deco, generally with a strong American influence.
The Liverpool Head Office of Martins Bank is a Grade II listed building and has been described as Rowse's "masterpiece and among the very best interwar classical buildings in the country." During the Second World War, the bulk of England's gold was moved to the bank's vault, the complete operation overseen by the bank's then Chief Inspector, Donald Devonport Lynch FCIB (1893-1982). This was dramatised in the film The Bullion Boys.
Martins bank was bought by Barclays Bank in 1969, when all of its 700 branches became branches of Barclays. Martins can lay claim to many “firsts” including

First in the north of England with a cash machine, in 1967 at 84 Church Street, Liverpool
First with mobile branches to provide banking to remote areas
First and only English bank to have a Head Office outside London
First to recognise and embrace the swinging 60's in its advertising
First to experiment with and then use a computer to operate current-account business
First with a branch on the centre court at Wimbledon

Women were contractually obliged to leave the bank upon marriage, and as late as 1965, men were not allowed to get married until their salary reached a prescribed level. Many of Martins' forms, and some procedures, were retained or later adopted by Barclays as being more advanced than their own.
Between 1958 and 1967 Martins Bank owned and operated Lewis's Bank which had branches in each of the Lewis's Department Stores (not to be confused with John Lewis) and also in Selfridges in London. Lewis's Bank was sold to Lloyds Bank in 1967 and lasted until at least the 1980s. The last Lewis's department store (in Liverpool) closed in May 2010.

The Liverpool Exchange Newsroom Memorial was originally unveiled by the 17th Earl of Derby on 1st January 1924 at Derby House, Liverpool. It was moved in 1953 when the original Exchange building was rebuilt. The monument is a cast group of figures ready for battle, a sailor behind his gun as he looks out and a nurse tending to a wounded soldier all overlooked by the figure of Britannia with her cloak billowing. The monument is in a niche between two pillars with a bronze tablet in the stone below. The sculptor was Joseph Phillips.

Exchange Flags was the home of the Western Approaches the Combined Operations headquarters to Liverpool opened on 7th February 1941 and housed in a bunker situated within west side of the U-plan complex and approached from Rumford Street to the west.

Foreign Marine Insurance Company Building 
3-5 Castle Street

Castle Street, one of Liverpool’s oldest and most historic streets, with some amazing architecture, the buildings are mostly of Victorian vintage, and among them the former British and Foreign Marine Insurance Company Building, nos. 3-5 Castle Street at the Town Hall end of the street.

The building was designed by Grayson and Ould, is five bays wide at ground level, with numerous windows higher up, with projecting bay windows to the left and right ends. Built in terra cotta and red brick, and with the lower buildings to left and right of the same materials it has a Mosaic frieze in Salviati mosaic by Frank Murray in three long, narrow panels above the first floor. The British and Foreign Marine Insurance Company was established in the 1860s and the friezes of historical shipping no doubt gave what was quite a young company an air of historical respectability and soundness, as well as alluding to Liverpool’s history of sea trade. They did their job – and still do a very satisfying decorative job today.

62 Castle Street

62 Castle Street is a Grade II listed building located on the west side of Castle Street, Liverpool. It was built in 1868 for the Alliance Bank and was later occupied by the North and South Wales Bank and most recently by the Midland Bank. The building was designed by the architects Lucy and Littler and features a domed banking hall with paired corinthian columns. The two bays to the right of the building are a matching addition, designed by G. E. Grayson.

After the Midand Bank had relocated to the northern end of the street, the building was converted in 1990 by Wayne Rose, a Liverpool businessman, at the age of 23, into a bar, restaurant and a 4-star rated, 20-bed, all-suite hotel, known as Trials Hotel due to its close proximity to the Queen Elizabeth Law Courts. The building was bought by Centre Island Hotels in 2004 and refurbished as a boutique hotel.

The dedigner George Enoch Grayson FRIBA (7 June 1833[1] – 7 November 1912) was an English architect from Liverpool.[2] He was the son of shipbuilder John Dorlin Grayson and Jane Dixon Grayson. He was articled to Jonathan Gilliband Sale in 1851, travelled on the Continent for 12 months in 1856, and opened an independent practice the following year. In 1886, he formed a partnership with Edward Ould, and in the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. His son George Hastwell Grayson (1871–1951) was also an architect in Liverpool, and became a partner in the same practice.

The World Museum is in William Brown Street, Liverpool. It has extensive collections covering archaeology, ethnology and the natural and physical sciences. Special attractions include the Natural History Centre and a free Planetarium. Entry to the museum itself is also free. The museum is part of National Museums Liverpool.

The museum has had extensive refurbishment in order to double the size of the display spaces, making even more of the collections accessible for visitors. Major new galleries include World Cultures, the Bug House and Aquarium. A central entrance hall and six-storey atrium opened in 2005. On reopening after this refurbishment and extension the museum's name changed from its previous title of Liverpool Museum, which it had held since its establishment at its current William Brown Street site in 1860.

Former North Western Hotel, Lime Street

The hotel was built in 1871 as a railway hotel by the London and North Western Railway to serve Lime Street Station. It was designed by Alfred Waterhouse, and contained 330 rooms. The hotel closed in 1933 and remained empty and unused for over 60 years. In 1994 it was bought by John Moores University and, at a cost of £6 million, was converted into a hall of residence for students, which opened in 1996. The building is constructed in stone with a slate roof in the Renaissance Revival style. It has five storeys, a basement and an attic, and is in 21 bays. The end bays and the bays flanking the three-bay centre are carried up into towers. The central entrance is round-arched, and is flanked by Doric columns.

St George's Hall opened its doors to the public in 1854, over 10 years after it was first commissioned. The architect responsible for the bulk of the design was Harvey Lonsdale Elmes. The Hall was built to provide a venue for the triennial music festivals. 
On top of this the courts were added as Elmes had been commissioned to design both buildings, and due to funding 'issues' they were combined. It contains the vastly ornate Great Hall with its vaulted ceiling, Minton tiled floor, replete with maritime and civic symbolism and is also home to a massive pipe organ.

The Small Concert Room at the Northern elevation of the Hall has been described as the 'Albert Hall in miniature' and is circular in design with a proscenium arch stage and is flanked by caryatids, female sculptural figures which are designed to give the impression of supporting the fine lace work of the iron balconies. St George’s Hall can lay claim to one of the oldest ventilation and air conditioning systems in the world, the workings of which can be seen in the lower basement level and throughout the Hall.

From behind the scenes tours to concerts, festivals and fetes and much more, there is something for everyone this season at St George's Hall. The Concert Room with its gold leaf, mirrors and huge chandelier: Charles Dickens described as 'the most perfect room in the world'. There is also a range of activities provided by the Heritage Centre including tours, talks and exhibitions and the recently opened Basement Galleries.

The Empire Theatre that we all now know, on Lime Street in Liverpool, opened on the 9th March 1925, with the opening production of 'Better Days', starring Stanley Lupino, Maisie Gay and Ruth French. Prior to the building of the present day Empire, another theatre once stood on the site, The New Prince of Wales Theatre and Opera House which opened on the 15th October 1866. It was, at the time, Liverpool’s largest theatre, but it was only about three-quarters of the size of the existing Empire. On July 29th 1867 its name changed to the Royal Alexandra Theatre and Opera House to honour the Princess of Wales.

After closing in 1894 the theatre opened in 1895 under the ownership of Empire Theatre (Liverpool) Ltd, although it still remained Alexandra. It was not until 1886 that the theatre changed its name to the Empire after it was sold to Messrs. Moss and Thornton for £30,000. It opened on the 19th December 1896, with Oscar Barrett’s famous pantomime Cinderella.

The theatre then closed its doors on Saturday 16th February 1924 for the building of the new theatre which can be seen today. The new theatre opened its doors to the public in 1925. The theatre was designed by W. and T. R. Milburn for Moss Empires; the carving and the ornamentation in the auditorium were carried out by E. O. Griffiths.

Liverpool's Chinese Arch is the largest outside of China. The arch was made from block components which were shipped from China to Liverpool in five large containers. Containing 200 hand carved dragons the arch was constructed by a team of 20 workers from Shanghai in under 90 days. It is now fitted with coloured lights which change every few minutes.

Mathew Street is a street in Liverpool, England, best-known worldwide as the location of the Cavern Club, where The Beatles played on numerous occasions in their early career.  The street connects Rainford Gardens (off Whitechapel) to North John Street, and is located in an area of the city centre known today as "The Cavern Quarter". Historically it was the centre of Liverpool's wholesale fruit and vegetable market. Mathew Street is visited by thousands of tourists a year, who visit the Cavern Club and many surrounding attractions including a statue of John Lennon, a Beatles store and several pubs formerly frequented by The Beatles. A wall in Mathew Street is adorned by a sculpture by Arthur Dooley entitled "Four Lads Who Shook the World".

It was also home to the influential music club Eric's, which played host to many famous punk bands from its opening in 1976, despite only being open for 4 years. The fame of Mathew Street led to the arrest of 3 men in 2006 when a resident of Dallas, Texas, viewing the street's webcam, saw a burglary in progress and called Merseyside Police. The psychoanalyst Carl Jung is often cited as visiting Liverpool in 1927, but he only recorded a dream in which he had, later published in Jung's autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections of which he wrote

"Liverpool is the pool of life, it makes to live."

As a result a statue of Jung was erected in Mathew Street in 1987, but being made of plaster, was vandalised and replaced by a more durable version in 1993.
Today, Mathew Street is one of Liverpool's most popular nightlife destinations.

Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, officially known as the Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King, is the seat of the Archbishop of Liverpool and the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool in Liverpool. Architects throughout the world were invited in 1960 to design a Cathedral for Liverpool which would relate to the existing Crypt, be capable of construction within five years, cost at the current prices no more than £1,000,000 for its shell, and most important of all, express the new spirit of the liturgy then being radically reformulated by the Second Vatican Council. Of 300 entries from all over the world, Sir Frederick Gibberd’s (1908-1984) design was chosen, and building began in October 1962. A Pathé newsreel showed stages of the building process. Less than five years later, on the Feast of Pentecost, 14 May 1967, the completed Cathedral was consecrated. The Papal Legate at the consecration service, most appropriately, was His Eminence John Carmel Cardinal Heenan, Archbishop of Westminster, who had been succeeded as Archbishop of Liverpool three years earlier by George Andrew Beck. The long waiting was suddenly over.

Radio City Tower (also known as St. John's Beacon) built in 1969 and opened by Queen Elizabeth II. It was designed by James A. Roberts Associates in Birmingham. It is 138 metres (452 ft) tall. The tower was refurbished in 1999 at a cost of £5 million. It reopened as Radio City 96.7 (and Magic 1548) in August 2000. The outdoor observation deck which had been located on the roof of the restaurant was transformed into a second floor; this now holds offices and conference rooms for the station.

St Francis Xavier's Church (Salisbury Street, Liverpool 3) first opened its doors on 4th December 1848. It has been staffed by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) ever since. Jesuits had been working in the Liverpool area from the 17th Century. In 1712 they built the first Catholic chapel since the Reformation. A second larger, chapel was built in 1736 only to be demolished by a mob in 1738. It was rebuilt in the following year disguised as a warehouse. In 1783, some years after the suppression of the Society of Jesus, it was handed over to the Benedictines.

Much of the hard work which led to the building of St Francis Xavier's Church (Salisbury Street) was done by the Society of St Francis Xavier. This was a group of lay people some of whom had been educated at Stoneyhurst, the Jesuit college. They were all fully aware of Liverpool's debt to the Jesuits.

St Mary's Church is in Walton (formerly Walton-on-the-Hill), Liverpool. St Mary's was originally the parish church of the Hundred of West Derby in what was to become the city of Liverpool. A church on the site is mentioned in the Domesday Book but this was rebuilt in 1326. The oldest part of the present church is the west tower, which was built in 1829–32 to a design by John Broadbent. The vast majority of the church, apart from the tower, was destroyed by incendiary bombs in the May Blitz of 1941. The body of the church was rebuilt between 1947 and 1953 by Quiggin and Gee, retaining the exterior as before, but creating a new interior.

St Paul's Church, Stonycroft has stood proudly on Derby Lane since January 1916. It was built by Douglas Horsfall and designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott whilst he was also working on Liverpool Cathedral and shares architectural similarities. It is the only other building in Liverpool that was designed by Scott and is the largest brick built church in Europe.
St. Paul's succeeded one of the same name in Liverpool, a massive stone edifice that once stood in the middle of St. Paul's Square. A correspondent to the Church Times on 9th May 1884 complained that only about 22 adults and the same number of children attended Matins at St Pauls. By the turn of the 20th Century the building and its Churchyard had fallen into such disrepair that the Corporation of Liverpool ordered its closure as a dangerous building unsafe for public use.
Mr. Giles Gilbert Scott, a young architect who had been appointed to design the Anglican Cathedral in Liverpool, was now asked to design the new St. Paul's Church. Scott had radically changed his design for the cathedral in 1910, replacing the twin towers with a massive central tower which was buttressed by four transepts. St. Paul's is based on the same design and it is very interesting to compare the design of St. Paul's tower with the first design for the cathedral tower. Construction of the church began in 1913 and was finished in 1916. Along with the Cunard Building, it was one of the few major buildings in Liverpool where building work was allowed to continue during the First World War. The church was to be built entirely of Jacobean two inch bricks specially made in Ruabon. 
The Parish Church of Saint Paul, 
Derby Lane,
L13 3DJ

The Baltic Fleet Pub was built after in the early 1850s and was originally called Turners Vaults, built to a late Georgian design. The pub was then added to circa 1856 in a Victorian design. The name is thought to have come from the area's links with the Baltic trade throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, it could also be linked to the naval fleet that sailed to The Baltic to blockade imports into Russia during the Crimea Campaign.

The Grapes is the pub The Beatles used to go to relax and drink a couple of pints between sets at the nearby Cavern Club. There's memorabilia of the band dotted around including a photo strategically placed above the spot they used to sit. In the 1960s the grapes was the only pub on Mathew Street and was surrounded by warehouses and fruit and vegetable traders. Mathew Street, or the Cavern Quarter as the area’s now known, is a mecca for everything Beatles-inspired.

The Philharmonic Dining Rooms is a public house at the corner of Hope Street and Hardman Street in Liverpool and stands diagonally opposite the Liverpool Philharmonic Hall. It is commonly known as The Phil. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. The public house was built in about 1898–1900 for the brewer Robert Cain. It was designed by Walter W. Thomas (not to be confused with Walter Aubrey Thomas the designer of the Royal Liver Building) and craftsmen from the School of Architecture and Applied Arts at University College (now the University of Liverpool), supervised by G. Hall Neale and Arthur Stratton. 
The building is constructed in ashlar stone with a slate roof in an "exuberant free style" of architecture. It has a combination of two and three storeys, with attics. There are ten bays along Hope Street and three along Hardman Street. Its external features include a variety of windows, most with mullions, and some with elaborate architraves, a two-storey oriel window at the junction of the streets, stepped gables, turrets with ogee domes, a balustraded parapet above the second storey, a serpentine balcony (also balustraded) above the main entrance in Hope Street, and a low relief sculpture of musicians and musical instruments. The main entrance contains metal gates in Art Nouveau style, their design being attributed to H. Bloomfield Bare.


The interior is decorated in musical themes that relate to the nearby concert hall. These decorations are executed on repoussé copper panels designed by Bare and by Thomas Huson, plasterwork by C. J. Allen, mosaics, and items in mahogany and glass. Two of the smaller rooms are entitled Brahms and Liszt. Of particular interest to visitors is the high quality of the gentlemen's urinals, constructed in "a particularly attractive roseate marble".

The exact origins of the Childwall Abbey Hotel are not known but it is possible that is was originally a chapel possibly the chapel of St Thomas the Martyr as far back as 1484. The Inn has been used by actors who have been staying in Liverpool, and many have scratched their names on the old windows of the room which faces the church. The Inn is rumoured to be haunted by a 15th century ghost and the tap room once hosted The Quarrymen, later to become the Beatles.

The Coffee House is probably Wavertree's oldest surviving pub it is listed in Lancashire Record Office files as early as 1777, as the Coffee House (licensee Elizabeth Heys). There was originally a brewery - the 'Crown Brewery' behind the pub accessible via an archway (now filled in) a few yards to the left of the front door. The Coffee House was once the terminus for Joseph Mattinson's horse trams and the tracks from Liverpool finished right outside. The Coffee House was popular as a day excursion venue from Liverpool, looking across at open fields which later became the White Star Line's sports ground. The pub was owned by Robert Cain & Sons - one of Liverpool's leading brewers, the original ground floor interior was the work of their architect Walter Thomas, famous as the designer of city centre pubs such as the Philharmonic in Hope Street and the Vines in Lime Street. 

The Steble Fountain was a gift to the City Of Liverpool from Colonel R.F Steble, the Mayor of Liverpool from 1874 to 1875 and was unveiled by a later Mayor Sir Thomas Bland Royden, in 1879. According to Pevsner, the art historian, it was designed by W Cunliffe, but more recent research attributes it to French artist Paul Lienard, who also designed the almost identical Brewer fountain in Boston, in the USA.

The fountain has a circular stone basin with a bronze centrepiece depicting four marine deites in pairs: Neptune with Amphitrite and Acis with Galetaea. For most of its lifetime children have found the fountain a fascinating place to play, this earned it the nickname of 'the street urchins seaside'.

The pumps for the Steble fountain are located underneath St Georges Hall and the vibration from them often disrupted proceedings in the courts above.  In August 1989 a presiding judge, justice Lush was so annoyed by the noise of the machinery that he ordered it to be switched off.  The original machinery was eventually replaced by an electric pump. The fountain underwent a restoration in 1922 on the occasion of the 'Tall Ships Race'.

One of the finest art galleries in Europe, the Walker Art Gallery is home to renaissance masterpieces, Tudor portraits and one of the best collections of Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite art in the country.

For 130 years it has housed Liverpool’s most outstanding art collection. Many of the gallery’s most important works have been on display in the city for nearly 200 years. 

The gallery also has an outstanding display of contemporary art including work by David Hockney, Lucian Freud and Bridget Riley. 

Tower Building on 21st April 2018

As far back as 1252 there has been a townhouse on the Liverpool shore.  Sir John Stanley pulled down the old house in 1406 and built the first Tower known as the Tower of Liverpool. This was used as an embarkation base for their property in the Isle of Man. The Tower stood at the shore end of Water Street. Water street being one of the original seven streets of Liverpool was originally called ‘Bonke Street’.  ‘Bonke’ was Lancashire dialect for ‘bank’ (taken from river bank). Through the years it became Bank Street and then eventually Water Street in 1520’s.

During the 18th century the Tower of Liverpool, between Tower gardens and Stringers alley was the Jail of Liverpool. A large arch joined the Tower to the building on the other side of Tower Gardens and this building was used to house debtors and Criminals. The Tower had 7 small underground dungeons, each approx 6’ sq. There were between 3-5 prisoners per dungeon, hence “ jail fever” was prevalent. A room at the Tower was used as a Chapel which later became the Debtors Room. n 1756 during the war with France the Tower was also used to confine prisoners of war.

The Tower became the property of the corporation in 1775 when it purchased it for £1535 10s from the then owner Sir Richard Clayton. The Tower ceased being a jail on 3rd July 1811 when all the criminals were moved to the new jail in Great Howard Street. In 1877 two men convicted of robbery were executed in Water Street opposite the Old Tower. By the end of the 18th century the Tower was in disrepair and was pulled down in 1819 to be replaced by warehouses.

In 1856 the warehouses gave way to the second Tower called Tower Buildings, a large Italianate office block by J. A. Picton. Unfortunately The Tower fell foul to the demands of commerce and was demolished in the early 20th century.

The present Tower Building, designed by Walter Aubrey Thomas was completed around 1908. During the air raids over Liverpool in 1941 Tower Building was badly bombed and several people were killed and injured. Check out the BBC site for the real life story.

A £2.2 million restoration project at Liverpool’s Tower Building was completed in January 2018. Work on the Grade II* listed former office block on the Strand included the replacement of irreparable faience cladding, re-pointing and specialist timber sash window repairs. 

The new Victoria Building was erected for Liverpool University College and was opened by Earle Spencer, Chancellor of the Victoria University on Tuesday December 13th 1892. A new west wing of the buildings in Brownlow Hill, adjacent to the engineering department, which was the gift of Sir A.B Walker was erected in the Queens jubilee year in 1887, at a cost of £16,000, thanks to the generosity of Mr Henry Tate. The clock and the bells for the tower were donated by W.P Hartley and other benefactors included Mr Ismay, W.P Sinclair, and Rev Canon Hume who donated valuable gifts of books. It was the first purpose-built building for what was to become the University of Liverpool. Victoria Building is constructed in Ruabon brick and common brick with terracotta dressings under a slate roof.

This acclaimed historical building has been redeveloped into the University of Liverpool’s museum and art gallery, displaying the university’s collection of art and early medical equipment.

Victoria Tower, often referred to as the 'docker's clock', was built as an aid to ships in the port, as it allowed them to set the correct time as they sailed out into the Irish Sea, while its bell warned of meteorological changes such as high tide and fog. Designed by Jesse Hartley it was constructed between 1847 and 1848, to commemorate the opening of Salisbury Dock. Its design was based upon an earlier drawing by Philip Hardwick in 1846. Upon completion is also served as a flat for the Pier Master. It is a Grade II listed Gothic Revival clock tower positioned between the two river entrance gates to the Salisbury Dock.

Stanley Dock, linking the Leeds-Liverpool canal with the River Mersey, was designed by Albert Dock mastermind Jessie Hartley and built between 1850 and 1857. The 200m long, 50m wide Tobacco Warehouse, added in 1901, is thought to be the largest brick building in Europe. The overall design is by A. G. Lyster, the Dock Engineer, but Arthur Berrington almost certainly played a part. The warehouse was built on land reclaimed from the dock. Stanley Dock is accessible from the dock system or by barge from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal which enters under Great Howard Street Bridge.

With the decline of trade going through Liverpool, the warehouse fell into disuse in the 1980s and gradually into disrepair.

A scheme convert the North Warehouse to a £30 million 153 room four star hotel with ground floor retail/leisure uses and a conference centre, commenced on site in February 2013. The hotel opened in late 2014.  

The next phase of redevelopment at Stanley Dock will see the transformation of the iconic Tobacco Warehouse, the centrepiece of Stanley Dock into apartments and business units. With investment in excess of £130 million.

The Picton Clock Tower - at the junction of Childwall Road, Church Road North and the High Street, Wavertree has been a local landmark for over 100 years. It was presented to the people of Wavertree by Sir James Picton in 1884, having been designed by him as a memorial to his wife Sarah, who had died in 1879 after fifty years of happy marriage. Picton was a prominent local resident. Born in Liverpool, the son of a timber merchant, Picton became a well-known architect and surveyor. He moved to Wavertree in 1848, having designed and built himself a house - Sandy Knowe - in Mill Lane.

James Allanson Picton was a prominent member of both the Liverpool Town Council and the Wavertree Local Board of Health. In Liverpool he was Chairman of the Libraries Committee for almost forty years. As a mark of respect, one of the main library buildings was named after him in 1879, and two years later he was knighted by Queen Victoria in recognition of his 'high attainments and public services'. As well as being a linguist and seasoned traveller, Picton was a keen student of local history. His two-volume work entitled 'Memorials of Liverpool' remains one of the leading reference books on the city's buildings and personalities.

The Blue Coat School, Church Rd, Liverpool

The Blue Coat School was founded in 1708 by Bryan Blundell and the Rev Robert Styth, a theology graduate of Brasenose College, Oxford with the aim of providing a place where poor children could be accommodated, cared for and learn to “read, write and cast accounts.” The original school building was situated in School Lane in buildings formerly used by Cross’s Free Grammar School. Today, it is the the oldest construction in the city centre, now functioning as the Blue Coat Arts centre. 

By the end of the Victorian era, it had been realised that the school buildings were inadequate and in 1899 the trustees of the School took the decision to commission a new school building what was then the countryside of Wavertree. The architects chosen for the design of the new building were Briggs, Wolstenholme & Thornely, most notable for the design of the Port of Liverpool Building. 

In 1906 the school took possession of the building and was later designated a Grade II listed building. The Blue Coat retained its role as an orphanage until the late 1940s; boys and girls in old-fashioned dress having been a familiar site around Liverpool for many years. 

The School changed its status in 1948 and became a day and boarding school for boys only. The boarding school was eventually phased out until only a few remaining boarders lived in the School and the rest of the students were day pupils. The School stopped accepting boarders in 1990, the same year were girls were readmitted to the Sixth Form only. In 2004, work commenced on a substantial redevelopment of the Wavertree site. The original buildings remained intact, but the southern wing of the school was converted into private accommodation and sold to part-fund the development. The school chapel, clock tower, board room, and former music room, together with administrative rooms and the formal entrance to the original building, were transferred to a new school foundation and made available to hire for weddings and other private functions.

Captain F J Walker CB DSO
Statue by Liverpool sculptor Tom Murphy

Johnnie Walker, Britain’s Number One U-boat Killer. Winning the Battle of the Atlantic to keep the supply lines open from North America and the West Indies was as important to the nation's survival as had been the Battle of Britain in 1940. Born in 1896, Frederic John Walker joined the Royal Navy as a 13-year-old. He passed out top of his class at Dartmouth and received the King's Medal. He fought in World War One and, aged just 21, became involved in the battle against U-boats that was to dominate his career. By 1926, He was Fleet Anti-Submarine Officer in the Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleets. Captain Walker hunted down 25 U-boats and urged his 2nd Support Group, his escort group on to other "kills", often through a loudspeaker on his flag ships.

He died on July 7, 1944, two days after collapsing from a stroke, he had a naval record second to none, with 25 1/2 U-boat kills credited to him, the half being shared by the RAF his legacy is brilliant and one that must be remembered. Such was his renown that the Admiralty went so far as to state: “Captain Frederic John Walker more than any other won the Battle of the Atlantic. 

In 1998 a statue by Liverpool sculptor Tom Murphy of Captain Johnnie Walker in a typical pose was unveiled at the Pier Head in Liverpool by HRH the Duke of Edinburgh. The campaign for the statue had been launched by the Captain Walker's Old Boys Association. Members of the Association met in Liverpool during the 60th Anniversary of the victory of the Battle of the Atlantic in 2003 to commemorate their comrades.

The Albert Dock was not always as we know and see it today: its history dates back over 170 years to 1839. Following a period of dereliction and a complete regeneration, the Dock was officially reopened in 1988.
It was engineer and architect Jesse Hartley who submitted plans to the Liverpool Dock Office, to begin the build of the original Albert Dock.
Construction of the Dock began in 1841; the 1.25 million square feet site took five years to build and it was officially opened by Prince Albert on 30 July 1846.
Today we can proudly say that the Dock’s lofty colonnades and statuesque columns make up the largest group of Grade 1 listed buildings in the country.
The creation of Albert Dock is a testament to innovation and engineering feats: before it, the wooden warehouses of the time made fires a huge risk. As such, the Dock was the first enclosed, non-combustible dock warehouse system in the world.

It was also the first structure in Britain to be built entirely of cast iron, brick and stone. The Dock went on to gain another ‘first’ in 1848, when the world’s first hydraulic warehouse hoists were installed on its site.

Pump House, Albert Dock

The Dock’s former pump house was built in 1870, and has been lovingly restored as a cosy traditional British pub, renamed The Pump House. The Albert Dock is a complex of dock buildings and warehouses in Liverpool, England. Designed by Jesse Hartley and Philip Hardwick, it was opened in 1846, and was the first structure in Britain to be built from cast iron, brick and stone, with no structural wood. As a result, it was the first non-combustible warehouse system in the world. The hydraulic pumping station that was added to the dock system to provide a power supply is now the Pump House pub.

Albert Dock Liverpool has been granted the prestigious title Royal in recognition of the pivotal role it continues to play in the city's fortunes. His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales made an official visit to Royal Albert Dock on February 12, 2019, in recognition of its new Royal status ahead of the 175th anniversary in 2021.

Benjamin Disraeli, the Earl of Beaconsfield – Sculptor C. B. Birch

Benjamin Disraeli was Born on 21 December 1804 in London – and Died 19 April 1881. The funding for the memorial in Liverpool was largely raised from within the city's Conservative Club.
Benjamin Disraeli was a politician and novelist but it was as a Conservative politician that Disraeli achieved lasting fame. Prime Minister for almost 7 years, he initiated a wide range of legislation to improve educational opportunities and the life of working people. Made Earl of Beaconsfield by Victoria in 1879, Disraeli governed from the House of Lords. His legacy includes some major Acts of Parliament including

Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act 1875: This decriminalised work of trade unions and allowed peaceful picketing.

Public Health Act 1875: improved sanitation and filthy living conditions in urban areas.

He was the first and only Jewish Prime Minister to date.

Croxteth Hall is the former country estate and ancestral home of the Molyneux family, the Earls of Sefton. After the death of the 7th and last Earl in 1972 the estate passed to Liverpool City Council, which now manages the remainder of the estate, following the sale of approximately half of the grounds. The remaining grounds, Croxteth Park, were at one time a hunting chase of the Molyneux family and are now open to the public.

The original house was built in about 1575, and has been expanded in several stages in Tudor, Georgian, and Queen Anne styles. The principal front, the west façade, was built in 1702. Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their children stayed at Croxteth Hall on 9 October 1851 before visiting Liverpool the following day. The Molyneux family lived at the Hall from the 16th century until 1972, when the last Earl died. His American-born widow Josephine, Countess of Sefton (1903–1980) - once a close friend of the Duchess of Windsor and nicknamed "Foxy" for her abundant auburn hair - continued to spend some time at Croxteth.

The estate also contains the historic Hall itself, open to the public for a small fee, as well as a maintained Victorian walled garden and a working country farm.

Liverpool County Sessions House was built between 1882 and 1884 to house the Quarter Sessions for the West Derby Hundred of the county of Lancaster. The coat of arms of the County appears in the pediment over the main entrance.
The Quarter Sessions was a court in which cases involving non-capital offences were tried by magistrates. Cases of this type were heard at the policy court in Basnett Street and at the Kirkdale Sessions House attached to Kirkdale gaol. The Prison Act of 1877 transferred prisons like Kirkdale from local authority control to the state and a new home had to be found for the Sessions. Until the new Sessions House opened in Islington. They court was housed temporarily in St George's hall the magistrates held their first meeting here on Monday 4th August 1884.
The Courts Act of 1971 abolished Quarter Sessions. After ending its role as a courthouse, the County Sessions House accommodated the Merseyside Museum of Labour History for some years. Since 1984 the building has been in the care of National Museums Liverpool and currently houses the Fine Art Curatorial and Learning Departments, Print Room and the Rex Makin Lecture Theatre, all part of NML's Art Galleries Division...

The White Star pub is on the edge of Liverpool’s cavern quarter in Rainford Gardens, with its opulent Victoriana décor including its red tiled frontage, red leather upholstery, fancy tiling, elaborate wood carving it is one of the cities more traditional pubs. The pub shares the name of the Titanic’s owners White Star Line, there’s a fair bit of nautical memorabilia on show. There is of course a Beatles connection as Bob Wooler and Allan Williams apparently used to pay their acts in the back room, and you can still sit where the Fab Four sat when collecting their money.
The  White Star appears as an advert in an Empire Theatre programme from 1887, advertising the White Star carvery and bar, however the pub has changed a bit over those years and the carvery has long gone. Where the telephone is, there used to be a dumb waiter. Where the gents is, was the back yard, and the pub didn’t have a ladies toilet until 1987. There are a few pubs in city that did not allow ladies in on their own due to the amount of prostitutes that worked in the city from the end of the Second World War until the early 90s. Just after the war a chap called Mr Quinn bought about 5 pubs in the city, he never changed the names, but on all the front windows he had etched Quinns, since then all the real ale drinkers in Liverpool and even the good beer guide have called it the White Star (Quinns 2). 
There are also a number of brass plaques on the front wall one to the Beatles, one twinned with the White Star Cz and two twinned with pubs in Norway. One with the Mets Sports Bar in Skien, and the Fat Lady in Grimstead.

Arthur Dooley was born on 17 January he was a British artist and sculptor. Born Arthur John Patrick Dooley in Liverpool, He served in the Irish Guards for nine years, he was also a welder at Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, and worked at the Dunlop factory in Speke. He went from moulding tyres to sculpting art at St. Martin's School of Art, London, (later incorporated into Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design) becoming a student there in 1953, he had his first exhibition at the Gallery of the same name in 1962.

He also Sculptured ‘The Four Lads who Shook the World’ which was the first ever statue to commemorate the Beatles. Located in Matthew St, it depicts the Mother Mary cradling her babies, the Beatles. Pete Price came up with the initial idea. Pete went to Roy Adams who at the time owned clubs in Matthews street, including the Cavern and asked him for permission to place the sculpture on one of the external walls, Roy said yes. In order to achieve the funding for the sculpture it was decided that an auction was the best was forward. The auction was a big success, After John Lennon’s untimely death in 1980, a second statue was erected and placed next to the original statue depicting a fourth baby (John) floating on the side with wings and a guitar.

A year after the late Dooley's "Four Lads Who Shook the World" statue was first unveiled the baby depicting Paul was stolen. Thirty years later in 2005 Bill Heckle, director of Beatles tourism company Cavern City Tours got an anonymous phone call from a mystery man offering to return the missing statue. The caller offered his effusive apologies and said the statue had been in his garage for many years. It was left in a plastic bag outside the Cavern and recovered by Bill...

With thanks to Dennis Hepworth and Bill Jenkins for additional information.

The Pilotage Building and Canning Pierhead

The Pilotage Building was erected in 1883 close to the entrance to Canning Dock. Believed to have been designed by G. F. Lyster, the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board engineer. Canning Half Tide Dock alongside the building was designed by Jesse Hartley and opened in 1844. The Pilotage Building, managed the river's pilot boats this building and the dock itself are now part of Merseyside Maritime Museum.

The Edmund Gardner was built in Dartmouth by Philip and Sons Ltd, who also built ferries and lightships for the Mersey. The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, who were responsible as the Liverpool Pilotage Authority, had her built as the second of a new generation of large diesel-electric powered cutters to replace the pre-war steam cutters. The Edmund Gardner was launched in July 1953 and was in service as a pilot vessel from December that year until April 1981, when she was one of the last two remaining large cutters on duty.

The Merseyside Maritime Museum purchased her in 1982 and she is now conserved in dry dock as a very good example of a British ship built in traditional style.

During her working life of almost 30 years the Edmund Gardner was essentially a base out in the Irish Sea for the Pilotage Service, providing accommodation for up to 32 pilots at a time. The pilots met all shipping approaching the Mersey and guided them into and out of the docks, to ensure their safety.

In 2014 the Edmund Gardner became a Dazzle Ship co-commission by 1418 NOW WW1 Centenary Art Commission, Liverpool Biennial and Tate Liverpool, in partnership with the Merseyside Maritime Museum. Renowned artist Carlos Cruz-Diez worked with the idea of dazzle using the historic Edmund Gardner pilot ship owned and conserved by the Merseyside Maritime Museum. The work was carried out by painters from Cammell Laird.

The Liverpool Eye And Ear Infirmary Erected A.D. 1879

In August 1820 the Liverpool Ophthalmic Infirmary, supported by voluntary contributions was established by Thomas Christian at 29 Slater Street, a house on the corner of Slater Street and Wood Street. In 1839 the Mayor and council very liberally granted this charity a lease of premises at the Harford Street corner of Mount Pleasant. In 1839 the Ear Institution was founded privately by Hugh Neill, aural and ophthalmic surgeon. This was established as a public charity in January 1840 and occupied premises at 5, Mount Pleasant. Hugh Neill served on the staff of both this charity and of the Liverpool Ophthalmic Infirmary and he recommended that the two charities should combine. This was agreed "... at a public meeting of the town..." in 1841 and the result of the amalgamation was the Eye and Ear Infirmary, occupying the Harford Street premises. 

In 1846 the Infirmary moved to larger premises at 90 Mount Pleasant, work of the hospital continued to increase and in 1881 it removed to the purpose-built hospital in Myrtle Street where it remained until its closure. In 1932 the hospital became the Eye, Ear and Throat Infirmary. After 1948 eye patients were no longer treated at this hospital and it became the Ear, Nose and Throat Infirmary. The hospital was finally closed in 1978 prior to the opening of the new Royal Liverpool Hospital in 1979. It was later used as a college building, and converted into flats in 2003. It is constructed in red brick, terracotta, and sandstone.

The Liverpool Philharmonic Society was founded in 1840 and in 1844 the Liverpool architect John Cunningham was appointed to prepare plans for a hall. The hall was opened on 27 August 1849 and continued to be the home of the society until a fire broke out during the evening of 5 July 1933. As a result the hall was damaged beyond repair.

Herbert J. Rowse was commissioned to design a new hall on the site of the previous hall. Rowse's design was in Streamline Modern style. It incorporated an organ built by the Liverpool firm of Rushworth and Dreaper with a console which could be lowered from the stage. The hall was officially opened on 19th June 1939 with a concert conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham.

An extension was added to the rear of the hall which was completed in 1992, designed by Brock Carmichael Associates and a major refurbishment of the hall was carried out in 1995. The Liverpool Philharmonic commenced work to refurbish the hall again in May 2014, with architects Caruso St. John leading a design team in a major refurbishment of the 1939 Grade II-listed building.

RIBA North West has announced that it has shortlisted seventeen new and exciting projects which will compete for a coveted RIBA North West Award in April. The recently refurbished Philharmonic Hall has been shortlisted. The venue has also been shortlisted for LiverpoolLEP Liverpool City Region Tourism Awards 'Entertainment Venue of the Year'.

St George’s Church – Everton

St. George's is a Grade 1 listed building, it was built on the former site of the Everton Beacon, on the highest point of the village. The land had been donated by James Atherton who would later build New Brighton.  It was built by John Cragg and the architect was  Thomas Rickman. The foundation stone was laid on 13th April 1813 and the church was consecrated on 26th October 1814. The church was privately built, paid for by subscriptions from the wealthy merchant classes who lived in the mansions that characterised  Everton  at this time. From the hill there was, and still is a fantastic view over Liverpool and the Mersey.

Many of the people who played a part in the early life of St Georges have made a lasting impression on Everton and Liverpool. Many of the nearby streets are named after these influential people. Cragg built two other iron churches, St Michael in the Hamlet, Aigburth still stands. Charles Horsfall, original subscriber, former mayor of Liverpool and buried in the churchyard had a church built in his memory and his sons went on to build other churches. James Atherton built and named streets in the area and Atherton Close is named after him.

St George’s is the world’s first Iron Church. It is built in the gothic revival style. It was the first church in the world built with a cast iron frame , and is clad with ashlar sandstone. All the windows have cast iron tracery and internally the nave has cast iron columns, arcades of cast iron, and a cast iron roof structure covered in slate. Only one stained glass window, dated 1863, survived the Second World War bombings in its entirety.

The Friends of St George’s is a voluntary organisation that exists to bring together people, from all walks of life, who value a building that has a unique place in history. Its ground-breaking early 19th century design is recognised the world over.

St. George's Vicarage, 40 Northumberland Terrace, Everton, Liverpool, L5 3QG

Information from St Georges Church Website

Thomas Major Lester (1829-1903) became a curate in Liverpool in 1853. Apart from a stint in Manchester, he spent the rest of his life in the city, becoming Vicar of St Mary's Kirkdale, and later an honorary Canon of the city. He is widely remembered for the Kirkdale Child Charities, through which he operated the Major Street Ragged Schools and later a Girls' Home in Walton Road, followed by school facilities there. As it says on the right side of the pedestal, he also founded the Stanley Hospital. Over 10,000 children benefited from his work ("Canon Thomas Major Lester"). A prominent educationist, amongst his many offices were those of Chairman of the Liverpool Self-Help Emigration Society, and President of the Liverpool Ruskin Society. He is buried at Anfield Cemetery, Liverpool.

Abercromby Square Gardens

The curator of the Botanic Garden, John Shepherd, was consulted on planting up the centre of Abercromby Square. A small, central domed Garden House was erected. In 1819, the garden was surrounded with cast-iron railings and gates to restrict the enjoyment of the gardens to the residents of the surrounding houses. In return for an annual rent of one guinea, the residents were allowed to walk in the Square’s garden, locally called 'The Shrubbery'. A key was made available so they could enter through the main gate. Abercromby Square is named after General Sir Ralph Abercromby, commander of the British Army in Egypt, who was killed at the Battle of Alexandria in 1801.

The Cenotaph
The Cenotaph on St George's Plateau is unusual for a war memorial, its long low shape deliberately made to fit the backdrop of St George's Hall. Designed by architect Lionel Budden it was unveiled in 1930. The original dedication to World War I was added to include World War II in a ceremony in 1946.

The Lord Mayor of Liverpool first proposed a permanent memorial to the city's citizens who had died in World War I shortly after the end of the war, but it took until the mid 1920s before Liverpool City Council decided to set up a committee and fund the Cenotaph.

Until the memorial was used for the first time in 1930, the city's Armistice Day services were held in front of a temporary wooden Cenotaph which was brought in from St George's Hall by handcart. Budden's design was chosen in 1926 in a competition judged by Professor Charles Reilly of the Liverpool School of Architecture.

The location of the Cenotaph on St George's Plateau was crucial in deciding its appearance, it was felt that a horizontal monument would complement the towering St George's Hall in the background. Professor Reilly said he had chosen Lionel Budden's design because of its "dignity, simplicity and reserve" that suggested an "idea of permanence and immovability".

The long bronze reliefs on the memorial were sculpted by George Herbert Tyson Smith, the panel facing St George's Hall depicts an army on the move in a long march, while the panel on the Lime Street side shows a commemoration of Armistice Day. As with many other Cenotaphs the dates 1914-1919 are inscribed on the ends of the memorial, although 11 November, 1918 was the day hostilities ended the memorial reflects the signing of peace settlements with Germany in June 1919.

The dates 1939-1945 were inscribed in 1946 to mark World War II.

Building work on the Cenotaph began in 1927, the main body of the memorial was largely complete by 1928 but the sculpted bronze reliefs took longer to finish. The unveiling took place on Armistice Day 1930, shortly before the two minute silence at 11am. In front of 80,000 people a large green cloth covered with 12,000 poppies which had been sewn on by hand, was moved back to reveal the Cenotaph. Although there were dissenters about the shape of the Cenotaph and its location Professor Reilly said that "...it will be seen that Liverpool has placed in front of her finest building, as the Greeks placed in front of their temples, a great altar."

Exchange Flags has been a centre for commerce in Liverpool for over 700 years. The Exchange Buildings occupy the site of two earlier Exchanges. The first was built in 1803-8 by John Foster Sen., possibly with James Wyatt, in the neoclassical style. It was replaced in 1864-7 by a French Renaissance building by T H Wyatt.

The present building, designed by Gunton and Gunton, was adapted during the course of construction, with the creation of a bomb-proof bunker in the basement of Walker House (formerly Derby House) to house a military command headquarters. From this facility, which became known as the Western Approaches Command Headquarters, the campaign against the German submarine fleet in the Atlantic during World War II was planned and directed, under the command of Admiral Sir Max Horton who oversaw the Battle of the Atlantic, one of the pivotal campaigns of the war.

Exchange flags is the home of the memorial to commemorate Nelson's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. The War Memorial in Exchange Flags was funded by subscriptions raised among members of the Liverpool Royal Exchange Company and was designed in 1916, initially dedicated to those members of the company and their sons who had enlisted. By the time of the final unveiling in 1924 it had also become a memorial to the war dead of the Liverpool Exchange Newsroom and their sons. In 1953 the memorial was moved to its present location from the old Exchange News Room, and placed between piers supporting stone sculptures by Siegfried Charoux.

The Henry Pooley Gates

The gates, which were once at the entrance to the Sailors home in Liverpool feature one of the earliest architectural depictions of the Liver Bird. They were taken down for repair in 1951 and removed to Sandwell were they stood outside Smethwick's Soho Foundry in the Black Country for 60 years.

After a hard-fought campaign by ex-seaman Gabriel Muies, Phil Griffiths and Steven McKay, the foundry in Smethwick agreed to let them go and Liverpool council paid £35,000 to bring them home. Once the gates had been shipped back piece by piece from Smethwick, in the Midlands, they had to be reassembled and resprayed green with the gold Liver bird taking pride of place

The concrete base was then laid, which keeps them safe and secure. In their time, the gates had been responsible for the deaths of two people, falling over and killing a middle-aged woman and a policeman on separate occasions in the 19th century.

The gates were unveiled in August 2011 and now stand on Paradise Street yards from their original location as a permanent monument to the Sailors Home and the seamen who used it.

12 Hanover Street 

Grade II Listed Building Designed by Liverpool architect Edmund Kirby (1838-1920) Built  1889 - 1890. This building was constructed for Ellis & Co shipowners and merchants, using red brick and terracotta from the Ruabon Terracotta Works in Wrexham, Wales. Offices occupied the ground floor and the upper floors were used as warehousing.

The building incorporates an earlier 1863 warehouse from adjacent Argyle Street. Refurbished in the 1990's by Liverpool Housing Trust, the entrance was moved to an inner court via the old cartway. The building is still occupied by LHT and its parent company Symphony Housing Group.

The Liverpool Cotton Association World War memorial  April 2016

Relocated from The Cotton Exchange where it was unveiled in 1922, to Exchange Flags, the Liverpool Cotton Association World War I- II memorial by Derwent Wood, now stands on Exchange Flags and is dedicated to the fallen members of Cotton Association in both world wars.
The memorial was unveiled by Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC

Born 19 June 1861 – Died 29 January 1928, Field Marshal Douglas Haig was a British senior officer during World War I.

The plaque reads

This memorial was unveiled at the Cotton Exchange by
Field Marshal Earl Haig of Bemersyde on 5th April 1922
It is dedicated to those men from
The Liverpool Cotton Association
Who died for their country in the defence if liberty and justice in the
Great War 1914 – 1918 and World War 1939 – 1945
Their name liveth for evermore

The Prudential Assurance Building, Dale Street, 1885-86 and 1905, the architect Alfred Waterhouse provided the Prudential with an unmistakeable corporate style in red pressed brick and terracotta. Liverpool's 'Pru' is one of the largest and most imposing, made all the more so by the tower added by his son Paul in 1905. This building came to the attention of the Liverpool public following the murder of Julia Wallace in January 1931 is one of the most written about cold cases in British history. Her husband was Prudential insurance salesman William Herbert Wallace, Wallace was arrested for her murder and a jury found him guilty in roughly an hour. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but in a first for British justice, his conviction was overturned on appeal because it was "not supported by the weight of evidence.

The Statue of Father Nugent
in St John’s Gardens

Father Nugent was born in Hunter Street, Liverpool on 3 March 1822. He was the eldest of nine children born to John and Mary Nugent, he was educated at a private school under the patronage of Reverend James Picton of Christ Church, Liverpool.

His family wanted James to pursue a business career but instead he chose to train for the priesthood and in 1838 went to the College of St Cuthbert, Usher. After 5 years there he went to the English College, Rome and was ordained as a priest at St Nicholas', Liverpool in 1846.

Living conditions in Liverpool in the 1840s were terrible. There was great poverty and sickness and thousands of children were homeless. Father Nugent decided to do something about this situation. In 1849 he opened a Ragged School at Copperas Hill to take homeless children off the streets offering them shelter, food and clothing. Later a night shelter and refuge giving homeless boys food and lodging was established, but in 1867 with over 48,000 boys receiving supper and 3,000 a night lodging, Father Nugent realised that more was needed. It was clear that a residential school was essential. The Boys' Refuge (a certified Industrial School) was opened in 1869 teaching shoe making, tailoring, joinery and printing, which continued until 1923. Father Nugent also pioneered child emigration to Canada from 1870, an activity that continued until 1930. In 1880 he took over 300 people from Galway to a new life in St Paul's, Minnesota, USA.

On 16 May 1905, whilst returning home from a trip aboard the RMS Oceanic, Nugent had a bad fall on the deck, sustaining a head injury and impairment of sight.

Monsignor Nugent died on 27 June 1905 at age 83 at the Harewood House, Formby after contracting pneumonia.

The Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas is in Toxteth, Liverpool, situated at the junction of Berkley Street and Princes Road. It was built 1870 in the Neo-Byzantine architecture style. The architects were W. & J. Hay and the church was built by Henry Sumners. It is an enlarged version of St Theodore's church in Constantinople. It is Grade II Listed building.

St. Nicholas' was built in the Liverpool neighborhood of Toxteth in a period when Liverpool's magnates were filling Toxteth with opulent mansions. The church stands in a neighbourhood of substantial homes and in a cluster of houses of worship designed to advertise the wealth and status of a group of captains of industry that was remarkably ethnically diverse, by the standards of Victorian England. Immediately adjacent to St. Nicholas are the Princes Road Synagogue and an early French gothic, Welsh Presbyterian Church.

The exterior is extremely ornate, featuring arches within arches, done in alternating bands of white stone and red brick. There is a row of three domes on the portico, and a fourth dome over the nave, all raised on drums. The interior, with white marble columns and Byzantine capitals, is surprisingly plain compared with the exterior.

Liverpool ‘Blitz’ Memorial
In the grounds of Liverpool Parish Church of our Lady and St Nicholas

During World War II the docks of Liverpool were a prime target for air raids, the city and surrounding areas were bombed and over 4000 civilians died in the air raids between 1940 and 1942. 

This sculpture by Tom Murphy’s is in memory of these civilian deaths, the poignant statue features a mother with babe in arms, beckoning her playful son to leave his toy plane and seek shelter from the bombs.

Tom Murphy said, " Each person will interpret the sculpture from their own knowledge and perspective . However , the key elements include : The mother who is clutching her baby while frantically trying to encourage her young son to escape down the staircase to a safer place ; The small boy playing with his aeroplane standing precariously at the top of the stairs , lost in the excitement of war ; The abstract staircase , shrinking as it rises , symbolizing the diminishing options of the family group ; The staircase also indicates the way bombs spiral as they fall ; Each step of the stairs has jagged cut-outs , which give the transient effect of shards of glass , particularly on a sunny day , when they can be seen within the shadows cast by the sculpture ; The aeroplane held by the small boy can be seen both as an instrument of destruction , or as a cross in remembrance of those who sacrificed their lives during the Blitz ."
The base has the following inscription on it. 

In Loving Memory
Of The Citizens Of Liverpool And Bootle
Who Lost Their Lives
In The Blitz Of 1940- 1942
This memorial was unveiled by H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh KG KT
7th July 2000

The Municipal Annex on the corner of Sir Thomas Street alongside The Municipal Building was built in 1883 to a design by F & G Holme as the base for the conservative Club which began as a Gentleman’s Club in London and as the name implies the club was politically aligned to the Conservatives. Photographed here in 1954 the building was eventually acquired by the City Council and housed the Education Department.

The building is now the  DoubleTree by Hilton, hotel it officially opened in October 2015 Running from Dale Street onto Sir Thomas Street the complex boasts 87 bedrooms, a state-of-the-art spa and a restaurant.

The old terminal building for Speke Airport, used between the 1930s and 1986, now the Crowne Plaza Hotel.

Built in part of the grounds of Speke Hall, Liverpool (Speke) Airport, as the airport was originally known, started scheduled flights in 1930 with a service by Imperial Airways via Barton Aerodrome near Eccles, Salford and Castle Bromwich Aerodrome, Birmingham to Croydon Airport near London. The airport was officially opened in mid-1933. By the late 1930s, air traffic from Liverpool was beginning to take off with increasing demand for Irish Sea crossings, the distinctive passenger terminal, control tower and two large aircraft hangars were built. During World War II, Speke was requisitioned by the Royal Air Force and known as RAF Speke. Normal civil airline operations resumed after VE-day and passengers increased from 50,000 in 1945 to 75,000 in 1948, the city took over control of the airport on 1 January 1961 and prepared development plans. In 1966, a new 7,500 ft (2,286 m) runway was opened by Prince Philip on a new site to the southeast of the existing airfield. A modern passenger terminal adjacent to the new runway opened in 1986 followed by the closure of the original 1930s building. In 1990 the airport was privatised, with British Aerospace taking a 76% shareholding in the new company. Subsequently the airport has become a wholly owned subsidiary of Peel Holdings Ltd. In 2000, work on a £42.5 million passenger terminal began, tripling its size and passenger capacity, completed in 2002. In 2001 the airport was renamed in honour of John Lennon, a founding member of The Beatles, 21 years after Lennon's death - the first airport in the UK to be named after an individual. A 7 ft (2.1 m) tall bronze statue stands overlooking the check-in hall.

The former  Spinney House in Church Street, Liverpool, built as a department store and retail headquarters for the Littlewoods organisation. Spinney House was built just two doors away from No. 38 Church Street, the small office where Sir John Moores founded his Littlewoods' Pools. Built in the 1950s the building features carvings of carved dolphins, starfish, seahorses, octopuses, lobsters, scallop shells, mermen, tridents and compasses by George Herbert Tyson Smith (1883–1972), an English sculptor born in Liverpool.

Spinney House was named by John Moores after a 'Spinney', which is a little wood, hence Littlewoods.

Penny Lane, made famous by the Beatles’ song and the famous “shelter in the middle of a roundabout” which although unoccupied has undergone some refurbishment in recent times. John and Paul grew up in this part of Liverpool, and they’d meet at the Penny Lane intersection to catch the bus into town. Nowadays Penny Lane is an important stop on Liverpool’s Beatles Trail, evoking the Beatles’ early days. The song refers to several local landmarks that still exist, including the old shelter the fire station nearby and the barber shop.

Campbell Square Bridewell is one of Liverpool’s Victorian gaols it is believed to have been built in the mid 19th century. Charles Dickens is said to have been sworn in as a special constable here for one night in the 1860s to carry out research for his book, The Uncommercial Traveller.

He would have accompanied regular officers out on the beat to witness first-hand the state of criminality in Liverpool then a booming shipping town and he would have certainly seen some memorable sights. A Chief Constables annual police report in 1863 quotes statistic of 26,220 arrests made that year. It is believed Dickens went on patrol around Salthouse and Albert Dock and Wapping, Liver Street and Canning Place.

With its proximity to the docks it can be assumed that the Bridewell would have been the prison of choice to process a large number of wrong-doers. Thanks to the technological improvements of the 20th Century and shifts in policing methods, the building fell into disuse and lay vacant for many years.

The premises re-opened as ‘The Liverpool One Bridewell’ pub but closed its doors for the final time in April 2016 when the owners reached the end of their lease.

The College of Technology on Byrom Street, Liverpool now part of the Museum was built between 1896 and 1901, the architect was Edward William Mountford. The building was constructed as a new College of Technology and an extension to the museum. The college occupied the lower levels and the museum the upper levels. Bomb damage led to some reconstruction work in the 1960s. The lower levels were later taken over by Liverpool Polytechnic and its successor Liverpool John Moores University. More recently, during the transformation of Liverpool Museum into World Museum Liverpool, the museum acquired the remainder of the building which now houses its research department.

Bold Street  in Liverpool is known for its cafés and for the Church of St Luke, which is situated at the top of the street. The bottom of the street leas on to Church Street and into the area surrounding Clayton Square, which is part of the main retail district of central Liverpool. At the bottom of the street you can find Liverpool Central, one of Liverpool's main stations after Liverpool Lime Street which can be accessed via an entrance on Bold Street next to The Lyceum. The Lyceum is a former post office and was also Europe's first lending library. The middle of Bold Street has a number of bars as it leads towards Concert Square, a square with clubs and bars which has a vibrant night life.

Bold Street was originally laid out as a ropewalk; a long thin area of land used in the manufacture of rope (the area is now known as 'Rope Walks'). They used to measure the rope from the top of Bold Street to the bottom because it was the standard length needed for sailing ships.It was laid out for residences around 1780 and named after Jonas Bold, a noted slave merchant, sugar trader and banker. In 1802 Bold became Mayor of Liverpool.It was also known as "the Bond Street of the North.

The magnificent Royal Insurance building stands on the corner of North John Street and Dale Street. The design was the result of a competition won by James Francis Doyle . The building is constructed around a steel frame, and is one of the earliest uses of this technique similar to that used on the Royal Liver Building. The building was constructed between 1896 and 1903 as the head office of the Royal Insurance Company. The interior contains the former General Office on the ground floor which, because of the steel frame, is free from any columns. In 2013 its freehold was bought by Liverpool City Council, and it was converted it into a hotel. It opened as the Aloft Liverpool Hotel on 29 October 2014.

Allerton Hall is in Clarkes Gardens, Allerton and was originally occupied by the Lathom family. Richard Lathom, who was a Royalist, fought alongside his uncles in the English Civil War. Richard survived the war but his Estate was "forfeited in the name of treason" by Cromwell's parliament in 1652. It was not until 1670 that the Lathoms were ejected from the hall, and only then by increasing the amount of the original purchase price.
When assessments were made for the hearth tax in 1666, Allerton Hall was one of the larger houses in the parish of Childwall with eight hearths; this was exceeded only by Speke Hall with twenty-one hearths. The estate was bought in 1736 by John Hardman and his brother James, the property passed to James Hardman's widow, Jane, in 1754. In about 1779, the house was bought by the lawyer, philanthropist and abolitionist, William Roscoe. Roscoe completed the building of the house but had to sell it in 1816 when he became bankrupt.
In the early part of the 20th century the building was owned by the Clarke family who donated it to Liverpool City Council in 1927. The building was damaged by two fires, in 1994 and in 1995.

The hall is now a public house known as the Pub in the Park.

All photographs on this page are © Bob Edwards - Picture Liverpool and may not be used without prior permission.
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